According to Katz and Chard (1998)  in recent years many teachers of young children have taken a hands- off approach to skill building because they confuse systematic instruction ( teaching individual children a progression of skills that contribute to greater proficiency) with direct instruction (teaching the same skills at the same time in the same way to a whole class).  Wanting to provide developmentally appropriate environments, teachers often shy away from any instruction and fail to give children instruction in basic skills they need to get through the day.

How can we use this research to better understand our job and children’s learning?  Remembering how important conversation is to cognitive development, how can you utilize conversation as a tool to offer instructions to young children?